Independent learning & thinking skills in art
A lot has been written about independent learning, some of it good and some of it awful. What independent learning isn't, is giving the students a task then asking them to go off and complete it on their own! Nor is it demanding that they do more, or harder, work. What it is about is asking pertinent, interesting open questions that can't easily be answered, then scaffolding learning so that your students are able to make personal responses, albeit with your support. This is much harder than it sounds and writing good questions is incredibly difficult. In fact I would go so far as to say that the art of asking questions is the key to real learning and teachers should spend most of their planning time devising good questions. It is something that I passionately believe can transform classrooms.
Read this quote from the AQA Art & Design Exam Moderators Report 2015:
"Course practice during Unit 1 had a profound effect on many student submissions seen, where those that had experienced opportunities to develop as independent thinkers were more able to respond effectively and make informed choices when reacting to the challenges and opportunities provided in Unit 2."
How do you teach young people to be able to create interesting, original artwork? What are your strategies for developing your pupil's imagination? Well you can't expect your students to be able to create fantastic artwork if you haven't taught them how to think, imagine and create. Often we set tasks to 'develop ideas' but this is a really difficult skill. It has to be more than brainstorming or thought bubbles or mind maps because these types of exercises often depend on people having some ideas in the first place. Make thinking a regular part of your lessons. Your pupils should know how to use visual metaphors and symbolism in their work. They do this in Primary school in their English lessons so it is very familiar to them. There is no reason why they shouldn't be talking about their use of metaphor in their artwork as early as year 4 or 5. This implies that it has to be taught and investigating the use of symbolism in art is a rich topic that will bring huge rewards. But you can't just do it once in year 9 and expect everyone to do it consistently. It has to be done repeatedly and often!
Other things you should be doing often is working from imagination on a frequent basis. Have a range of imagination exercises as starters, plenaries and homework's.
You should also create problem solving lessons as stand alone exercises, teach quick, snappy thinking or longer term idea development but above all make it fun!
There is a lot more about this topic in the Art of Questions section of the Art Teacher's Handbook.
The Art of Questions
Raise attainment, open the door to pupil-centred teaching and ditch the teacher-led model. The art of questions is contained in the full Handbook and is a guide to developing a question based curriculum.
One of my favourite resources! A PDF handout that can be printed as a poster too. It focusses thinking of ideas into different strands from surface, immediate ideas into deep thinking. This principle of making your students think of different strategies for ideas, tasks and projects is a really important one.
The original ideas game turned into a classroom activity to develop original thinking. Use this as a starter before an ideas session to show pupils how to come up with great ideas for art. Edit it for your own use.
The Paper Clip Game
This isn't my idea, but a translation of a psychometric test developed in the 1960's. It's a very challenging task, but one that really uncovers who has a good imagination. Can be used as a good group starter.
Where do ideas come from?
This presentation looks at a wide range of ways that we can develop an idea and more importantly, where ideas come from. You can cherry-pick individual slides to highlight a point you want to make about idea development. Add your own ideas to it!
Obviously symbolism has been around as long as mankind has, and there are many good examples out there, but this attempts to make symbolism a succinct lesson that informs idea creation. This can be adapted and developed further into more complex study.
Scaffolding support for Independent Learning
One of the first things you notice when you switch to a Self Directed Learning model in art are the tumbleweeds. They come flying through your classroom on a regular basis, so much so that you'd be forgiven for panicking and switching to more traditional teaching methods. The things is, most children have never worked in this way before and so to be plunged into the icy pool of challenge is daunting for them. This is where your skill as a teacher comes in. You simply have to have a good scaffolding support system in place before you begin. My method is a tried and tested one. This is:
1. Provide the problem by means of deep, essential questions that are hard to answer.
2. Wait for the tumbleweeds, the long pauses and the blank faces.
3. Provide Foundation questions to support the big question. These might lead the students into a particular avenue or provide alternative means of answering the question.
3. Begin to organise the class to answer the questions, either in groups or individually.
4. Have a bank of resources that will lead them to find answers, such as books, DVD's, Internet pages, or the library.
5. Give them a clear indication of what their answer should contain in order to be successful.
6. Monitor progress and provide intervention where needed. For less able, have some supporting material that they can use to find a more simple solution, or provide more clues and support. Note; you should only give this support AFTER they have struggled, not before. For more able, extend the range of evidence required or make the questions more challenging.
You provide a big question for the class;
"How has music influenced abstract art?"
Then, after a short discussion period (of complete confusion), you provide Foundation questions;
"Who was Wassily Kandinsky and how did music influence his art?"
"Are there any contemporary abstract artists working today who are influenced by music?"
"What other links are there between music and art?"
This leads your students into specific areas of research. Note that these questions cannot be answered with a simple Google search! You of course will have some sites in reserve that answer these questions at judicious times, discreetly and when they are most needed.
When they are beginning to unravel the answers to the problem, you provide a set of criteria that makes it explicit what they need to produce in order to answer the question. For example:
Produce your answer to this question in any of the following formats you find most suitable:
• Digital presentation
• Large, single sheet
You should show evidence in both written and pictorial formats, some of which should be hand rendered. Please use your own words; do not copy and paste text, or print out internet pictures. All of your sources must be clearly verified.
For more help and guidance on using Self Directed Learning in Art and other questioning techniques, read the Art Teacher's Handbook.
As an NSEAD registered art consultant, I offer a friendly, professional art consultancy service to schools, from early years right through to Secondary GCSE. I've worked with infant schools to improve art assessment, delivered primary school CPD on skills and progression, worked with Subject Leaders to raise attainment and done whole school, secondary art department audits including formal lesson observations and department reviews. My over-arching strategy is to support the professional development of hard working professionals with positive and constructive advice for improvement.
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